This period of prehistory lasted from c 4000-2000 BC. Neolithic means ‘New Stone Age’.
During the Neolithic period nomadic hunter-gatherers were living alongside the more permanent dwellings of the first farmers.
Before they could plant their crops, the farmers first had to deforest areas of land. On the cleared areas they started to grow cereals and breed cows and sheep; but they also hunted and fished.
Then, after the larger trees had all been exhausted for building, they started to make simple stone buildings. Other livestock, including goats, pigs and horses, were introduced from mainland Europe.