Permanent dipole-permanent dipole interactions

The following statement describes the assessable content for this sub-section, as described in the SQA arrangement documents.
A molecule is described as polar if it has a permanent dipole. The spatial arrangement of polar covalent bonds can result in a molecule being polar. Permanent dipole-permanent dipole interactions are additional electrostatic forces of attraction between polar molecules. Permanent dipole-permanent dipole interactions are stronger than London dispersion forces for molecules with similar numbers of electrons. Permanent dipole-permanent dipole interactions are a type of a van der Waals' force.

Animations

Intermolecular forces of attraction

Chemistry animation - Intermolecular forces of attraction

This animation describes and explains the key intermolecular forces of attraction (Van der Waals forces of attraction) including London dispersion forces, permanent dipole-permanent dipole attractions and Hydrogen Bonding.